Give Me History

Senusret I

Senusret I was the second pharaoh in Egypt’s Twelfth Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom. He ruled Egypt from c. 1971 BC to 1926 BC and Egyptologists viewed him as this dynasty’s most powerful king. He pursued his...

Ramses III

Ramses III was the Second pharaoh in the 20th Dynasty of Egypt’s New Kingdom. Egyptologists recognize Pharaoh Ramses III as the last of the great pharaohs to rule Egypt with substantial power and authoritative...

Eye of Horus: The Definitive Guide

The ancient Egyptians lived in a society that is considered to be one of the most fascinating in human history. The people of that time gave credence to both the physical and spiritual aspects of their culture...

Ancient History

Ancient History
Statue of Senusret I

Senusret I

Senusret I was the second pharaoh in Egypt’s Twelfth Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom. He ruled Egypt from c. 1971 BC to 1926 BC and Egyptologists viewed him as this dynasty’s most powerful king. He pursued his father...

Depiction of Rameses III

Ramses III

Ramses III was the Second pharaoh in the 20th Dynasty of Egypt’s New Kingdom. Egyptologists recognize Pharaoh Ramses III as the last of the great pharaohs to rule Egypt with substantial power and authoritative central...

The Great Temple of Ptah at Memphis.

Memphis

Legend has it that King Menes (c. 3150 BCE) founded Memphis in c. 3100 B.C. Other surviving records credit Hor-Aha Menes’ successor with Memphis’ construction. There is a Myth that Hor-Aha so admired Memphis that...

The Temple of Edfu.

Temple of Edfu

Today, The temple of Edfu in Upper Egypt between Luxor and Aswan is one of the most beautiful and best-preserved in all of Egypt. Known also as the Temple of Horus, its exceptionally well-preserved inscriptions have...

The Great Pyramid of Giza or Kheops-Pyramid

Great Pyramid of Giza

Anyone who has ever gazed upon the Great Pyramid of Giza (also known as the Pyramid of Khufu or Cheops) can only stand in awe of the amazing achievement of its builders. From the Fourth Dynasty Pharaoh Khufu to its...

Location of Xois in Ancient Egypt, as seen from orbit.

Xois

Xois or Khaset or Khasut as the Egyptians knew it was a large Egyptian town, ancient even by the time of the 14th Dynasty. It enjoyed a Mediterranean-wide reputation for its production of fine wine and the manufacturer...

Relief of Thutmose II.

Thutmose II

Thutmose II who is believed by Egyptologists to have reigned from c. 1493 to 1479 BC. He was the 18th dynasty’s (c. 1549/1550 to 1292 BC) 4th pharaoh. This was an era in which ancient Egypt rose to the peak of its...

Detail of King Snefru from his funerary temple of Dahshur.

Snefru

Snefru (or Sneferu) was the founding Pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty in Egypt’s Old Kingdom. Following his death, his ancient Egyptian subjects remembered him as a good and just ruler. Egyptologists believed he reigned...

Pyramids at Saqqara

Saqqara

At the heart of ancient Egypt’s culture lay a deep reverence for and belief in the afterlife. Enormous care was taken to create vast necropolises to serve not just the royal family and members of the aristocracy but the...

A plowing farmer - from a burial chamber of Sennedjem

Jobs In Ancient Egypt

As with other contemporary civilizations, ancient Egypt’s economy was dependent on a mix of both unskilled and skilled labour. How ancient Egypt organized its labour force was one of the contributing factors to its...

A sarcophagus believed to be that of Ramses I

Ramses I

Egyptologists believe Ramses I (or Ramesses I) was descended from a military family hailing from Egypt’s northeast delta region. Horemheb the final king in ancient Egypt’s 18th Dynasty (c. 1539 to 1292 BCE) was Ramses’...

Howard Carter brushing dust off King Tut's mummy.

Howard Carter

Since Howard Carter discovered King Tutankhamun’s tomb in 1922, the world has been gripped by a mania for ancient Egypt. The find propelled Howard Carter a previously largely anonymous archaeologist to global fame...

Gods Ra-Harakhty and Amentit.

Ra

In a religious pantheon brimming with 8,700 gods, the ancient Egyptians worshipped Ra ahead of all other gods. After all, Ra was the Egyptian god who created everything. In this role, Ra rose from a sea of turbulent...

The wall decorations within Tutankhamun's Tomb.

Tomb of Tutankhamun

Today, Tutankhamun’s tomb is considered to be one of the world’s great art treasures. When his burial items go on tour, they continue to draw record crowds. Its fame is due in no small part to the grave goods in King...

The Mask of Tutankhamun.

Tutankhamun

Few Pharaohs have captured the public imagination over succeeding generations than the young Pharaoh Tutankhamun. Ever since Howard Carter discovered his tomb in 1922, the world has been enthralled with the splendour...

Slate statue of Neferefre.

Neferefre

Neferefre may not be amongst the most high profile of Egyptian pharaohs, however, he is one of the most thoroughly documented kings of the Old Kingdom’s (c. 2613-2181 BCE) Fifth Dynasty. Inscriptions, texts and...

The Goddess Isis.

Isis

In ancient Egypt, Isis was the much-loved goddess of fertility, motherhood, marriage, medicine and magic. Myths and legends abounded in the ancient world about Isis and have come down to us today through Egyptian...

Hieroglyphic of Amon-Ra.

Amun

Ancient Egypt was a culture rich in theological beliefs. In a religious cosmos featuring 8,700 major and minor deities, one god, Amun was consistently depicted as the Egyptian supreme creator-god and the king of all the...

Egyptian gods Horus and Geb.

Geb

Geb was the ancient Egyptian god of the earth. He was also one of the second generations of the nine gods who formed the Ennead of Heliopolis. Also known as Gebb, Kebb, Keb or Seb,  Geb was the third divine pharaoh. He...

Egyptian wrestling scene.

Ancient Egyptian Sports

People have played sports seemingly since the dawn of time when the first cities and organized civilisations emerged. Unsurprisingly, ancient Egyptians enjoyed both individual and team sports. Just as ancient Greece had...

Skyline of Alexandria, current day.

Alexandria

Modern Alexandria is a port set on Egypt’s northern Mediterranean coast. Following his conquest of Syria in 332 BCE, Alexander the Great invaded Egypt and founded the city the following year in 331 BCE. It achieved fame...

Temple of Rameses II within the Ramesseum complex.

Ramesseum

The Ramesseum is a monumental funerary temple honouring Ramses II or Ramses the Great. It was commissioned to serve the king’s mortuary cult after Ramses’ death and was also consecrated to Amun the king of Egypt’s gods...

A stone statue of Hatshepsut.

Queen Hatshepsut

Hatshepsut (1479-1458 BCE) is considered to be one of ancient Egypt’s most revered if controversial rulers. Celebrated by Egyptologists as a commanding female sovereign whose rule ushered in a long period of military...

A panorama of the great hypostyle hall at Karnak.

Karnak

Modern-day Karnak is the contemporary name for the ancient Egyptian Temple of Amun. Set at Thebes, the ancient Egyptian referred to the site as Ipetsut, “The Most Select of Places,” Nesut-Towi, or...

Abu Simbel Temple of Ramesses II.

Abu Simbel

Symbolising ancient Egypt’s cultural richness the Abu Simbel temple complex is a breathtaking statement of political and religious power. Originally carved into living rock, Abu Simbel is typical of Ramses II...

Queen Nefertari.

Queen Nefertari

Nefertari means ‘beautiful companion’ and was the first of Rameses the Great’s Great Royal Wives. Known also as Nefertari Meritmutor or ‘Beloved of the goddess Mut’ Nefertari is one of Egypt’s...

Nefertiti bust.

Nefertiti Bust

Surely one of the most enigmatic examples of ancient Egyptian art ever to come down to us through the passing centuries is the bust of Queen Nefertiti, the Pharaoh Akhenaten’s Great Royal Wife. Today she gazes unseeing...

The Eye of Horus or Ra.

The Eye of Ra

In ancient Egyptian religious lore, the Eye of Ra is an entity representing a female analog to Ra Egypts sun god. When unleashed it is a violent force able to subdue Ra’s enemies. The Eye is likened to the sun’s disk...

Seth and Horus adoring Ramesses.

Seth

Seth was ancient Egypt’s god of chaos, storms and war. Also known to the ancient Egyptians as Seth and Suetekh, Seth was the brother of Horus the Elder, Osiris and Isis, Nephthys brother-husband and uncle to Horus the...

Tutankhamen and his wife, Queen Ankhesenamun.

Ankhesenamun

Perhaps only Cleopatra VII has such a tragic story as the turbulent personal history of the vanishing Princess Ankhesenamun. Born around c. 1350 B.C. Ankhesenamun or “Her Life Is of Amun” was the third of King...

Façade of the Temple of Seti I in Abydos.

Abydos

Set inland 10 kilometres (six miles) from the Nile River in Upper Egypt, Abydos emerged as a centre of gravity in ancient Egypt’s rich religious life. Abydos became the burial site of choice for Egypt’s early First...

Roman Emperor Augustus.

Egypt Under Roman Rule

Cleopatra VII Philopator was the last Queen of Egypt and its last pharaoh. Her death in 30 BCE brought to an end over 3,000 years of an often glorious and creative Egyptian culture. Following Cleopatra VII’s suicide...

Isis suckling Horus.

Horus

Horus is the ancient Egyptian god of the sky. In Egyptian lore, there are two divine beings sharing this name. Horus the Elder, also known as Horus the Great was the last of the first five original gods to be born...

Anubis weighs Ani's heart against the feather of Maat.

Ma’at

Ma’at or Maat is a concept that symbolises the ancient Egyptian ideas about balance, harmony, morality, law, order, truth and justice. Ma’at also took the form of a goddess who personified these essential concepts...

The judgement of the dead in the presence of Osiris.

Osiris

Osiris is one of the most powerful and important gods in the ancient Egyptian pantheon. Depictions of Osiris as a living god show him as a handsome man wearing royal robes, with the plumed headdress Atef crown of Upper...

God Khnum moulds Ihy.

Ihy

Ihy is the ancient Egyptian god of childhood, music and joy. His name has been translated as meaning “sistrum player” or “calf.” He is closely associated with the music of the sacred sistrum, a musical rattle form of...

Coffin Panel with Paintings of Funerary Scenes.

Ancient Egyptian Art

Egyptian art has woven its spell on audiences for thousands of years. Its anonymous artists influenced Greek and Roman artists, particularly in creating sculpture and friezes. However, at its core, Egyptian art is...

View of the Temple of Isis from Philae.

Philae

Today, Philae is an Egyptian island completely submerged by Lake Nasser. The lake resulted from the construction of High (Aswan) Dam in 1970. In a dramatic “rescue mission” UNESCO relocated the island’s temples from...

Ahmose fighting back the Hyksos.

Hyksos

The Hyksos People remain largely enigmatic to this day. Their ethnic origins of the Hyksos are still unknown as is their fate once Ahmose I (c. 1570-1544 BCE) expelled them from Lower Egypt and ushered in the rise of...

Ancient Egyptian Fashion

Ancient Egyptian Fashion

Fashion amongst the ancient Egyptians tended to be straightforward, practical and uniformly unisex. Egyptian society viewed men and women as equals. Hence, both sexes for the majority of Egypt’s population wore similar...

Anubis Monument.

Anubis

One of the oldest gods in the Egyptian pantheon, Anubis holds his place amongst their bevvy of gods as the god of the afterlife, the helpless and of lost souls. Anubis is also the Egyptian patron god of mummification...

The Book of the Dead of Hunefer, sheet 3.

Book of the Dead

Surely one of the most evocative titles ascribed to an ancient text, the Egyptian Book of the Dead is an ancient Egyptian funerary text. Created sometime around the beginning of Egypt’s New Kingdom the text was in...

Temple of Kom Ombo: Relief of the crocodile god Sobek.

Sobek

Sobek was the ancient Egyptian god of water. Over time he also became closely associated with surgery and with medicine. These attributes reflected Sobek’s role as a prominent protective deity who is depicted the form...

Cartouche in the Temple of Horus at Edfu. The inscribed name is Cleopatra.

Cartouche Hieroglyphics

An ancient Egyptian cartouche is an oval frame containing the hieroglyphs comprising the name of a God, a member of the aristocracy or a senior court official. Stylistically, a cartouche is designed to represent a loop...

Depicts the battles and conquests of Ramses II.

Ramses II

Ramses II (c. 1279-1213 BCE) was the third pharaoh of Egypt’s 19th Dynasty (c. 1292-1186 BCE). Egyptologists frequently acknowledge Ramses II as perhaps the most celebrated, most powerful and the greatest pharaoh of the...

Publicity photo of Claudette Colbert for the film Cleopatra.

Ancient Egyptian Queens

When we think of the Queens of Egypt the seductive allure of Cleopatra or Nefertiti’s enigmatic bust typically springs to mind. Yet the story of Egypt’s Queens is more complex than popular stereotypes would have us...

Seti I and his son, the future Ramesses the Great.

Pharaoh Seti I

Seti I or Menmaatre Seti I (1290-1279 BCE) was a Nineteenth Dynasty pharaoh of Egypt’s New Kingdom. As with many ancient Egypt dates, the precise dates of Seti I’s reign remain a point of contention amongst historians...

Amun Court in Hatshepsut Temple.

Hatshepsut

While she was neither Egypt‘s first female ruler, nor its only female pharaoh, Hatshepsut (1479-1458 BCE) was ancient Egypt ‘s first female ruler to reign as a male with the full authority of a pharaoh’s office. The...

Sculpture of Thutmose III as Sphinx

King Thutmose III

Thutmose III (1458-1425 BCE) also known as Tuthmosis III was Egypt’s 6th king of the 18th Dynasty. He forged an enduring reputation as one of antiquity’s greatest military leaders. This military prowess set the platform...

Amenhotep III, King of Egypt

King Amenhotep III

Amenhotep III (c. 1386-1353 BCE) was the ninth king in Egypt’s 18th dynasty. Amenhotep III was also known as Amana-Hatpa, Amenophis III, Amenhotep II and Nebma’atre. These names reflect the concept of the god Amun being...

The Banquet of Cleopatra.

Cleopatra VII

Cleopatra VII (69-30 BCE) had the misfortune to ascend the throne at a time when Egypt’s wealth and military power were in decline and an aggressive and assertive Roman Empire was expanding. The legendary queen also...

Statue of king Djoser, base of the statue with royal titulary.

King Djoser

To Egyptologists, the Pharaoh Djoser came to power during a time of immense development in Egypt’s history. Agriculture, trade, architecture, the arts, Egypt’s civil administration and their state theology all...

The Pharaon Tutankhamun destroying his enemies.

Ancient Egyptian Warfare

Strategically, Egypt was blessed with imposing natural defensive lines. Egypt’s swath of desert made the country a difficult target for invasion. The Mediterranean Sea protected Egypt’s northern border while the five...